Cells use glucose as the main source of energy and when you eat food, the pancreas start to produce a hormone called insulin. insulin works to transport glucose from the bloodstream into the cells, to be used or stored.

Diabetes mellitus is a disease indicated by the metabolism irregularities in insulin hormone, that will lead to an increase the level of glucose in the blood.

Types of Diabetes:

  • Type 1 Diabetes (mostly appears in childhood or adolescence)
  • Type 2 Diabetes (most common in people over 40 years old)
  • prediabetes
  • Gestational Diabetes is often symptomatic and can be cured.

Diabetes can affect many organs and tissues and may cause serious complications such as kidney failure, retinopathy, heart disease, and nerve damage especially in the feet due to poor blood flow.

Symptoms & Causes

There are some symptoms that indicate high blood glucose level:

  • Fatigue
  • Frequent urination
  • Increased thirst
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow-healing ulcers
  • Extreme hunger and unexplained weight loss
  • Frequent infections, such as gingivitis and skin infections
  • Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that occurs when the insulin is not available enough)

Diagnosis & Tests

Diabetes is detected by checking the blood glucose level. There are three tests that can measure the level of glucose in blood:

  • Fasting blood glucose test
  • Random blood glucose test and A1c test (known as HbA1C test or glycated hemoglobin test)
  • Oral glucose tolerance test


A healthy diet and weight loss combined with exercise can help control Diabetes, especially if it’s type 2. If lifestyle changes aren’t enough to lower your blood glucose, then you’ll need to take medication or insulin injections. It is also recommended to monitor blood sugar and blood pressure on a daily basis.

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