It is an autoimmune disease that often accompanies other immune system disorders, such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Lupus Erythematosus. In Sjögren’s syndrome, the mucous membranes are usually affected, causing dry eyes and mouths. Although you can develop Sjogren’s syndrome at any age, most people are older than 40 at the time of diagnosis, and the syndrome is more common in women than men.

Sjögren’s syndrome can damage other parts of the body, such as: the joints, thyroid gland, kidneys, liver, lungs, skin and nerves.

Symptoms & Causes

The two main symptoms of Sjögren’s syndrome are:

  • Dry eyes: burning sensation, and itching
  • Dry mouth: The patient may feel as if his mouth is full of cotton, which makes swallowing or speaking difficult

Regarding the kidney, chronic interstitial nephritis (inflammation of the tissue surrounding the kidneys) is the most common manifestation of Sjögren’s syndrome.

Diagnosis & Tests

Clinical manifestations of interstitial nephritis include: elevated concentration of plasma creatinine, hypokalemia, hematuria (blood in urine), and abnormal renal function.


Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms associated with the disease. When there is any renal involvement, an opinion of a Nephrologist is mandatory and if indicated the treatment will be advised. Treatment with glucocorticoids or other immunosuppressive agents appears to slow progression of renal disease.

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