Kidney stones are hard, pebble-like pieces of material that form in one or both kidneys, when you have a high level of certain minerals and salts in the urine. Kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage. Especially if treated at early stages by Nephrologist.

Kidney stones vary in size and shape. They may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pea. Rarely, some kidney stones are as big as golf balls. Kidney stones may be smooth or jagged and are usually yellow or brown.

A small kidney stone may pass through your urinary tract, causing little or no pain. A larger kidney stone may get stuck along the way and can block your flow of urine, causing severe pain or bleeding and Kidney function alteration.

Symptoms & Causes

Clinical manifestations are:

  • Vomiting
  • Decreased urine output
  • Presence of blood in the urine (hematuria)
  • Pain at the waist
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Decreased level of kidney function

Diagnosis & Tests

Kidney stones can be diagnosed by:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests
  • Imaging tests (such as computerized tomography CT)
  • Analysis of stones in the urine (laboratory test)

It should be emphasized that recurrent urinary tract infection can lead to end stage renal disease, for this reason an accurate and detailed screening is essential to treat and slow the complications associated with kidney stones.


Follow-up with Nephrologists is very important to determine which kind of kidney stones you have as the treatment and the recommended diet may vary depending on the type of the stone:

  • Drinking water: It is recommended to drink (1.8 to 3.6 liters) per day
  • If the kidney stones are accompanied by symptoms, then medications are given to reduce the severity of the symptoms (such as painkillers)
  • The treatment plan varies according to the size and number of kidney stones

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